'Before This Decade Is Out': 55 Years Since the Speech Which Committed America to the Moon (Part 1)

On 25 May 1961, President John F. Kennedy made one of the most remarkable speeches in U.S. political history, by setting his nation on a course to land a man on the Moon. Photo Credit: NASA

On 25 May 1961, President John F. Kennedy made one of the most remarkable speeches in U.S. political history, by setting his nation on a course to land a man on the Moon. Photo Credit: NASA

When we think of heroes in the early Space Age, our minds are naturally drawn to the likes of Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepard, to Alexei Leonov and John Glenn, to Valentina Tereshkova and Neil Armstrong and to Sergei Korolev and Wernher von Braun. These brave souls, and thousands like them, charted our first course away from Earth and allowed us to see new sights and visit new worlds. Their sacrifice remains incalculable, but one other man enabled the single step to be taken which may define us, centuries from now. Fifty-five years ago, last week, John Fitzgerald Kennedy—35th President of the United States—gave the speech to Congress which provided the political direction for America to land a man on the Moon. His actions, to be fair, were deep-rooted in the politics of his time, but their long-term ramifications have turned him into a hero of the Space Age.

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SpaceX Launches 25th Falcon 9, Tenth Payload to Geosynchronous Orbit

The 25th Falcon 9 vehicle roars aloft from Space Launch Complex (SLC)-40 at 5:39 p.m. EDT Friday, 27 May. The mission delivered SpaceX's tenth payload towards Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and accomplished the fourth successful landing of first-stage hardware in an intact configuration. Photo Credit: John Studwell/AmericaSpace

The 25th Falcon 9 vehicle roars aloft from Space Launch Complex (SLC)-40 at 5:39 p.m. EDT Friday, 27 May. The mission delivered SpaceX’s tenth payload towards Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and accomplished the fourth successful landing of first-stage hardware in an intact configuration. Photo Credit: John Studwell/AmericaSpace

SpaceX successfully delivered the 25th member of its workhorse Falcon 9 booster family aloft tonight (Friday, 27 May). After passing through an apparently flawless countdown on Thursday afternoon, the process of fueling the Upgraded Falcon 9 with liquid oxygen and a highly refined form of rocket-grade kerosene (known as “RP-1”)—which should have gotten underway at T-35 minutes—was delayed and the 5:40 p.m. EDT opening of the two-hour launch window was missed. Amid a characteristic dearth of information from SpaceX, a revised T-0 of 7:36 p.m. EDT was eventually issued, but at length a 24-hour scrub was announced and efforts set in motion for another attempt on Friday.

In spite of initial fears that the weather would dip to just 60-percent-favorable, conditions actually proved beautiful and the Upgraded Falcon 9 roared aloft from Space Launch Complex (SLC)-40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., at 5:39 p.m. EDT Friday, right on the opening of the launch window. Nine minutes later, the first stage completed a perfect landing on the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship (ASDS) in the Atlantic Ocean and at 6:11 p.m. SpaceX deployed its tenth payload towards an eventual Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) destination, more than 22,300 miles (35,900 km) above Earth.

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Asteroid-Bound OSIRIS-REx Arrives at NASA Kennedy for September Launch

OSIRIS-REx uncrating at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA Kennedy. Credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

OSIRIS-REx uncrating at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA Kennedy. Credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

NASA’s first asteroid sampling spacecraft, OSIRIS-REx, arrived at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Friday, May 20. The spacecraft is set to undergo a series of tests and final preparations to ready it for a September launch to an asteroid, boosted from Earth atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V 411 rocket. At Kennedy, OSIRIS-Rex will be put through a spin test, solar array release test, electrical system testing, and propellant loading.

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Back to the Moon? New House Bill Defunds NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission

Artist's conception of the Asteroid Redirect Mission. The new House bill directs NASA to bypass this mission and return to the Moon instead, before going to Mars. Image Credit: NASA

Artist’s conception of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The new House bill directs NASA to bypass this mission and return to the Moon instead, before going to Mars. Image Credit: NASA

Sending human astronauts to Mars is a dream shared by many, but there are still challenges to overcome and the question of just how to accomplish it is a subject of intense debate. Some supporters advocate sending a mission directly to Mars, while others think that returning to the Moon first, for potentially beneficial training, is the way to go. Indeed, former astronaut James Lovell, who flew on two trips to the Moon, has also called for a return to the Moon first. NASA itself has stated its desire to send a crewed mission to a nearby asteroid first, instead of the Moon, going a bit farther into space than the Moon as its idea of preparation for the much longer journey to Mars. A major problem has been that NASA has still not set a firm timetable for such a mission; it wants to go to Mars, but the steps to achieving that goal are still unclear.

Now, the House Appropriations Committee has spoken on the issue in a new report and has made changes in the budget for fiscal year 2017, calling for NASA to abandon its asteroid idea and send astronauts back to the Moon first, before going to Mars.

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SpaceX Prepares for Third Geostationary Mission of 2016

The Thaicom 8 satellite will be co-located with its sister, Thaicom 5, at 78.5 degrees East longitude. Photo Credit: Orbital ATK

The Thaicom 8 satellite will be co-located with its sister, Thaicom 5, at 78.5 degrees East longitude. Photo Credit: Orbital ATK

For the 25th time in a little under six years, the roar of a Falcon 9 rocket’s Merlin-class engines is expected to echo across Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on Thursday, 26 May, delivering another payload towards space. Liftoff of the Upgraded variant of the SpaceX booster—equipped with improved Merlin 1D+ engines, structural enhancements to its airframe and benefiting from a “densified” cryogenic-loading protocol—is scheduled to occur from the Cape’s Space Launch Complex (SLC)-40 at 5:40 p.m. EDT Thursday. The relatively spacious, two-hour “launch window” is due to close around 7:40 p.m.

A customary Static Fire Test of the nine Merlin 1D+ engines of the Upgraded Falcon 9’s first stage was successfully conducted on Tuesday evening. “Static Fire complete in advance of Thursday’s launch,” tweeted SpaceX at 10:31 p.m. EDT Tuesday. In addition to transporting the heavyweight Thaicom 6 communications satellite to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), SpaceX will attempt another landing of the Falcon 9 first-stage hardware on the deck of the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship (ASDS) in the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Inside Story of How Aviation Week’s Decision to Sit on One Cold War Blockbuster Led to Another

DIA briefings arranged by Gen. “Davy” Jones as part of Aviation Week’s deal not to publish KH-11 details revealed the Soviets had begun development of a space shuttle that ultimately flew only once—unmanned— in November 1988. Credit: Energia

DIA briefings arranged by Gen. “Davy” Jones as part of Aviation Week’s deal not to publish KH-11 details revealed the Soviets had begun development of a space shuttle that ultimately flew only once—unmanned— in November 1988. Credit: Energia

Editor’s note: This month Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine, where our U.S. Military Space reporter Craig Covault spent nearly 40 years, is celebrating its 100th anniversary. Since Covault provided decades of award winning coverage, the current editors asked that he write a piece for the Aviation Week anniversary issue detailing the process behind two particular scoops that have become legend at AWST. The story is reproduced here with permission along with two corrections that have come to light.

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On March 20, 1978, Aviation Week & Space Technology revealed that the Soviet Union was secretly developing its own reusable space shuttle. The article, complete with details on the Soviet shuttle’s design characteristics, was a scoop picked up by media around the globe. What readers do not know, however, is the revelation’s connection to another Cold War blockbuster written 14 months earlier, but not published, after a plea from the acting chairman of the Pentagon’s Joint Chiefs of Staff.

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'An Amazing and Wonderful Experience': 20 Years Since STS-77’s Record-Setting Rendezvous Mission (Part 2)

STS-77's primary cargoes dominate this view of Endeavour's payload bay in orbit. In the foreground is the Spacehab-4 module, with SPARTAN-207 visible in the background. Photo Credit: NASA, via Joachim Becker/SpaceFacts.de

STS-77’s primary cargoes dominate this view of Endeavour’s payload bay in orbit. In the foreground is the Spacehab-4 module, with SPARTAN-207 visible in the background. Photo Credit: NASA, via Joachim Becker/SpaceFacts.de

Twenty years ago this week, six men orbited Earth aboard Shuttle Endeavour on one of the most complex research flights ever conducted in the program’s 30-year history. With such a large number of payloads aboard, it was imperative for the STS-77 crew—Commander John Casper, Pilot Curt Brown, and Mission Specialists Andy Thomas, Dan Bursch, Mario Runco, and Canada’s Marc Garneau—to begin activating as many experiments as possible on the first day of their 10-day flight. As described in yesterday’s AmericaSpace history article, STS-77 was tasked with a multitude of experiments in the commercial Spacehab-4 laboratory and the deployment and retrieval of as many as four free-flying satellite payloads. Launch was originally targeted for 16 May 1996, but was pushed back to the 19th, since the earlier date was not available to NASA on the Eastern Range schedule. The crew had been training for the mission for almost a year, having been assigned in June 1995, and took their seats aboard Endeavour for an early-morning liftoff at 6:30 a.m. EDT.

“Really an amazing and wonderful experience,” was the opinion of first-time flier Andy Thomas, an Australian-born U.S. astronaut, who was seated on Endeavour’s flight deck for ascent. “I could look out the overhead windows with a wrist-mirror. I could see the flame in the flame trench, prior to liftoff; I could see the flash of the [Solid Rocket Booster] ignition; and then feel the lurch as we were accelerated upwards.”

Continue reading ‘An Amazing and Wonderful Experience’: 20 Years Since STS-77’s Record-Setting Rendezvous Mission (Part 2)

Jupiter's Moon lo Formed Under Unique Processes, New Study Suggests

An impressive image of Jupiter's moon Io, as seen from NASA's Galileo spacecraft from a distance of approximately 600,000 km. A volcanic eruption is easily seen at the moon's upper limb, rising almost 140 km above the surface. A new study has shown that these volcanic eruptions play an integral role in the formation of mountains on the moon's landscape as well. Image Credit: Galileo Project, JPL, NASA

An impressive image of Jupiter’s moon Io, as seen from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft from a distance of approximately 600,000 km. A volcanic eruption is easily seen at the moon’s upper limb, rising almost 140 km above the surface. A new study has shown that these volcanic eruptions play an integral role in the formation of mountains on the moon’s landscape as well. Image Credit: Galileo Project, JPL, NASA

From a mountaineering perspective, Earth doesn’t present much of a challenge when compared to other planetary bodies in the Solar System. Mount Everest, Earth’s tallest mountain whose peak reaches 8.9 km above sea level, may seem like a towering giant from a terrestrial standpoint, but when put in context to the mountains and ridges that dominate the surfaces of some of our Solar System’s planets and moons, it feels more like a modest hill.

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'Wide-Eyed Dreamers': 20 Years Since STS-77's Record-Setting Rendezvous Mission (Part 1)

The Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) extends from the SPARTAN-207 free-flying satellite, after deployment. Photo Credit: NASA, via Joachim Becker/SpaceFacts.de

The Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) extends from the SPARTAN-207 free-flying satellite, after deployment. Photo Credit: NASA, via Joachim Becker/SpaceFacts.de

Early on 20 May 1996, NASA astronaut Mario Runco, Jr., grappled SPARTAN-207—a small, free-flying spacecraft, equipped with a very unique experiment—and lifted it from Shuttle Endeavour’s payload bay with the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) mechanical arm. Together with his five crewmates, Runco had launched just 24 hours earlier, kicking off the 10-day STS-77 mission. And on STS-77, the frequent-flying SPARTAN would undertake its most ambitious exercise yet. Runco released the satellite on time at 7:29 a.m. EDT, into orbital darkness, after which Commander John Casper maneuvered Endeavour to a distance of about 820 feet (250 meters).

Once there, Casper held his ship’s position for about an hour, before conducting a partial flyaround, to a point directly “above” the satellite. Next, he began an 80-minute period of station-keeping to observe a quite remarkable experiment: an experiment with potentially enormous benefits for a range of applications, from space radar to mobile communications, from astronomy to Earth observations, and from environmental research to the analysis of soil moisture and salinity. In fact, STS-77—which was in orbit 20 years ago, this week—set the space shuttle’s myriad capabilities to work and served as a critical pathfinder for future research aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

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New Horizons Obtains New Images and Science Data of Post-Pluto Kuiper Belt Object

Image from New Horizons showing the small KBO called 1994 JR1, taken in April 2016. Credits: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

Image from New Horizons showing the small KBO called 1994 JR1, taken in April 2016. Image Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

The New Horizons mission to Pluto has been nothing less than incredible, giving us our first close-up views of this enigmatic dwarf planet and its moons. But the show isn’t over yet, as the New Horizons team is now planning for its next encounter with another Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) in 2019. But even before then, the spacecraft has been busy observing other smaller objects, and has now collected the first science data on one of them, called 1994 JR1.

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